Introduction

About this tutorial

Welcome to Learn You an Elm! If you’re reading this, chances are you want to learn Elm. Well, you’ve come to the right place, but first let’s talk about this tutorial a bit.

I decided to write this because Learn You A Haskell is now a common resource for learning functional programming. But, Elm is developing into its own language, and has some significant technical and philosophical differences from Haskell. So, instead of throwing away the great resource that is LYAH, we’ve decided to adapt it.

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This tutorial is aimed at people who have experience in imperative programming languages (C, C++, Java, Python …) but haven’t programmed in a functional language before (Elm, F#, Clojure, Scala, Haskell, Scheme, ML, OCaml …). Although I bet that even if you don’t have any significant programming experience, a smart person such as yourself will be able to follow along and learn Elm.

The elm-discuss mailing list is a great place to ask questions if you’re feeling stuck. People there are extremely nice, patient and understanding to newbies.

So what’s Elm?

fx Elm is a functional programming language, where functions are stateless. In imperative languages you get things done by giving the computer a sequence of tasks and then it executes them. While executing them, it can change state. For instance, you set variable a to 5 and then do some stuff and then set it to something else. You have control flow structures for doing some action several times. In stateless functional programming you don’t tell the computer what to do as such but rather you tell it what stuff is. The factorial of a number is the product of all the numbers from 1 to that number, the sum of a list of numbers is the first number plus the sum of all the other numbers, and so on. You express that in the form of functions. You also can’t set a variable to something and then set it to something else later. If you say that a is 5, you can’t say it’s something else later because you just said it was 5. What are you, some kind of liar? So in stateless functional languages, a function has no side-effects. The only thing a function can do is calculate something and return it as a result. At first, this seems kind of limiting but it actually has some very nice consequences: if a function is called twice with the same parameters, it’s guaranteed to return the same result. This is a property that makes testing, debugging and refactoring code very easy. It also makes it easy to build more complex functions by gluing simple functions together.

Elm is eager, unlike Haskell, which is lazy. That means, in Elm, if you call a function, the arguments are fully evaluated before they are passed to the function. Most programming languages are like this, so you won’t likely need to think about this very much.

boat Elm is statically typed. When you compile your program, the compiler knows which piece of code is a number, which is a string and so on. That means that a lot of possible errors are caught at compile time. If you try to add together a number and a string, the compiler will whine at you. Elm uses a very good type system that has type inference. That means that you don’t have to explicitly label every piece of code with a type because the type system can intelligently figure out a lot about it. If you say a = 5 + 4, you don’t have to tell Elm that a is a number, it can figure that out by itself. Type inference also allows your code to be more general. If a function you make takes two parameters and adds them together and you don’t explicitly state their type, the function will work on any two parameters that act like numbers.

Elm is elegant and concise. Because it uses a lot of high level concepts, Elm programs are usually shorter than their imperative equivalents. And shorter programs are easier to maintain than longer ones and have less bugs.

Elm was made by Evan Czaplicki, who continues to develop it with the support of NoRedInk. It is currently used in production by several companies, including CircuitHub and NoRedInk.

What you need to dive in

Not much. The majority of the code in this book can be compiled and run using either elm-lang.org/try, or share-elm (if you want to save your code).

When we get to more complicated examples, you’ll need a text-editor, such as Atom, Sublime, LightTable, or any other editor of your choice. There are lots of Elm-specific plugins for editors that you can download.

You will also need a copy of The Elm Platform. If you are on Mac or Windows, use the installers at the above link. If you are on Linux, you can install using the NPM Package Or, you can build it from source.